This paper analyzes the available cannabis products on the market in comparison to what is known to be the optimal products for pain. The authors argue that cannabis high in THC does not necessarily have the highest medical value and in fact increases the changes of negative side effects. They suggest medical dispensaries and patients who use for medicinal purposes pursue using lower-THC (<5-10%) products.
There are documented differences in the endocannabinoid system in animals. This paper looks at differences in cannabis consumption behavior patterns between men and women. Interestingly, men and women report both different positive and negative effects of cannabis.
This paper is a good summary of contaminants that could be present in cannabis products. States with legal medical and/or recreational programs all have some form of standard for what they test for. It’s a good read if you are interested in understanding what is and isn’t tested for in your products.
Headache disorders are common and debilitating. This paper does a great job summarizing the research that has already been done studying migraines. Many of the studies are old and have not been repeated, but generally it was found that low doses of cannabis would reduce the severity, frequency, and sometimes completely prevent or abort migraines.
It seem so. In this review, out of 10 included studies, 8 reported decreases in opioid prescription use, 1 reported no change, and 1 reported increases in opioid use. Given the conflicting nature of some of the results, the authors have rated the answer as a “B” grade for cannabis legalization reducing opioid substance abuse
This paper is a review of all current (as of 2018) imaging studies looking at how cannabis changes the human brain. There is a particularly useful image at the beginning showing the location of CB1 receptors and the downstream effects of THC.
Almost all of the negative risks associated with cannabis use can be minimized by informed use practices and behaviors. This paper analyzes risk factors for negative side effects and suggests best practices for safer cannabis consumption.
There is a lot in this one paper. If you’re going to read a single paper on CBD, make it this one! This paper summarizes imaging studies on the human brain with CBD and combinations of CBD and THC in both healthy patients and those with neuropsychiatric disorders. While there’s still more to learn about CBD, it’s clear that it does cause changes in brain functionality despite having little to no psychoactive effects.
Taking CBD changes the effects of THC. This paper takes a look into how CBD and THC have been shown to interact so far in both scientific research and in human patients.
Even though we think of CBD as a cannabinoid, some of its therapeutic effects are through the serotonin system. This paper uses a mouse model of neuropathic pain and found that CBD was effective at reducing spontaneous pain (allodynia) and anxiety behaviors.
CBD has an amazing ability to reduce seizures for people who are resistant to other drugs with a low and sometimes nonexistent side effects profile. This paper summarizes clinical findings for the treatment of epilepsy with CBD.
Preventing and reducing inflammation is one of the key therapeutic factors of all cannabinoids and CBD is no exception. In this study, CBD reduced the total inflammation and reduced pain behaviors in mice who had developed arthritis.
While there still is more to find out, it’s clear that CBD has potential for helping people with opioid substance abuse, mainly to help minimize withdrawal symptoms and to act as an anxiolytic or pain reducer. This paper delves into the specific evidence available so far that shows CBD may be able to help fight the opioid epidemic.
Care and Feeding of the Endocannabinoid System: A Systematic Review of Potential Clinical Interventions that Upregulate the Endocannabinoid System
What are some things you can do besides consuming cannabis to get the most therapeutic gain? This paper goes over how changes in lifestyle like diet, exercise, and other non-cannabis drugs can induce changes in the ECS
Endocannabinoids are molecule that our body makes to communicate important messages regulating inflammation, the immune system, metabolism, and overall brain chemistry. They interact with the same receptors that cannabis activates. This paper is a summary of what we know about endocannabinoids so far and can provide insight into the overall endocannabinoid system. Because this is the same system that interacts with cannabis, it’s possible to draw tentative parallels for therapeutic potential.
A fantastic review of the ECS that covers the different players that can interact with cannabinoids (receptors and enzymes). It also looks at what we know so far about what happens when we interact with each, specifically in the brain.
PTSD is a complex disorder that varies from individual patient to patient, but can have significant negative effects on a person’s ability to live a full life. This paper looks at how the endocannabinoid system is involved in fear circuitry and fear responses. Generally, it was found that cannabis has the potential to reduce the intensity of negative triggers and strengthened the brain’s ability to reduce the fear-associated memories.
Did you know there are certain mutations (like genetic diseases, but less understood) in the CB1 receptor that are related to irritable bowel syndrome? Many people who struggle with gastrointestinal disorders benefit from the use of cannabis. This paper briefly covers the different pieces of gastrointestinal disease that we’ve linked to the ECS.
The Endogenous Cannabinoid System: A Budding Source of Targets for Treating Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain
There are two main types of pain: pain caused by inflammation or injury and pain caused by the brain (neuropathic). Cannabis can help both types through the ECS. This paper dives into what we know so far about how the ECS contributes to both types of pain pathways.
Serotonin is often given all the credit as the “happy” molecule in the brain, but the serotonin system works very closely with the ECS. Changes in the ECS cause changes in the serotonin system. This paper is an older review (2012), but gives a great big-picture outlook on how the endocannabinoids can change serotonin signaling.
Ethnopharmacology—A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science
We believe in studying the power behind traditional medicines and that the underlying biochemistry and pharmacology is undervalued. This paper describes the field of ethnopharmacology, or the study of traditional medicines, and how it has evolved in the last 50 years.
The origins of cannabis smoking: Chemical residue evidence from the first millennium BCE in the Pamirs
Why do we smoke cannabis? This paper shows evidence that humans have been smoking cannabis since as early as 500BC. The authors found CBN residue on the inside of a mortuary site, indicating that cannabis was burned in a ceremony honoring death.
A shaman was buried with a substantial cannabis stash over 2700 years ago – this paper analyzes the cannabinoid content and genetics of the ancient cannabis plant. They were able to confirm that the plant contained THC, CBN, and other cannabinoids.
Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?
The first documented use of medical cannabis was in China as a surgical anesthetic called mafeisan. This paper reviews what we know so far about cannabis in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and identifies possible new applications translated from ancient Chinese texts.
“Transformation of phytocannabinoids by heat, isomerization, dehydration, and derivation of cannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa smoke.” by Real Isolates founders Andrew Westerkamp and Miyabe Shields and presented by Real Isolates Chief Scientist Dr. Miyabe Shields at the International Cannabinoid Research Society 2021.
... "Most notably, the CBD isolate which was > 98% pure transformed into 18 separate peaks."